The 1902 Nile Agreement

However, Egypt and Sudan, which were British colonies in 1902, claimed treaty rights, based on the principles of state succession. In addition, it is argued that the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1929, which confers a veto on Egypt, binds not only the then-British colonies, but also Ethiopia through the 1902 treaty. Therefore, Egyptian and Sudanese scholars claim that the 1959 treaty is binding on countries on the upper shores, including Ethiopia. That is why you will find the 1902 quoted on the website of the Egyptian State Information Service. The Egyptian prime minister`s letter sets out the amount of water Sudan is allowed to take. It also defines how and where this quantity is recorded. The Wafd critic attacks these last details. She argues that they have defeated the spirit of the agreement. No attempt is made here to relay the controversy thus presented. Its practical solution will depend largely on the good faith with which the agreement enters into force.

In the current state of knowledge, it is appropriate to start from this good faith. It should be recalled that on February 28, 1922, Great Britain recognized Egypt as an independent sovereign State, provided that certain matters remained at the discretion of His Majesty`s Government until it was possible, through the free debate and friendly complacency of both parties, to conclude agreements on the matter between His Majesty`s Government and the Egyptian Government. Sudan — the “black country,” a vast area south of Egypt between the twenty-second and fifth latitudes — was the subject of the fourth of these reservations. This area had been reconquered jointly by Britain and Egypt during the campaigns of 1896-8. It is governed by a condo. The flags of England and Egypt fly side by side. The Egyptians claim that Sudan belongs to them and that it should be integrated into their kingdom. The English dispute this. Since the war, downing street has fluctuated somewhat in relation to its Egyptian policy. However, it has remained tenacious and consistent on one point: England will not abandon Sudan. This intention has not been changed. Britain`s willingness to adapt the Nile water issue before settling Sudan`s fate, if at all, underscores the fact.

In any case, the 1902 treaty did not present Egypt as a co-signatory. In addition, the Treaty and no errors are contained in Article III. The word “arrest” is what`s important in this article…

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